When Lin-Manuel Miranda was a teenager in the 1990s, he liked to make eclectic mixtapes for his friends. In those cassettes, he experimented with the rise and fall of energy in music: A musical theater number might play after a hip-hop song, only to be followed by an oldie or an obscure pop song. It was through mixtapes that he could bridge the gap between two seemingly opposing passions — Broadway and rap.
"I think I learned more about writing scores for Broadway by making mixtapes ... than I did in college," the actor, composer and lyricist tells Fresh Air's Terry Gross.
In 2008, Miranda's first musical, In The Heights, won four Tony Awards, and in 2016, Hamilton — a hip-hop infused retelling of the Founding Father's life — won 11 Tony Awards and a Pulitzer Prize.
Though Miranda stepped away from his Hamilton role in July, he remains busy with other projects. He wrote several songs for the Disney animated film Moana, and he's preparing to star in a film sequel of Mary Poppins.
Looking ahead, Miranda says he doesn't feel pressure to duplicate or exceed the success of Hamilton. "If you think in terms of topping, you're in the wrong business," he says. "I remember getting that question after In the Heights. 'It's your first musical and you won the Tony, how are you going to top it?' I'm like, 'I went from broke substitute teacher to Broadway composer. I will never make a leap that big in my life again.' "
On what it was like to play Alexander Hamilton every night
It was an enormous challenge to do that show every night, and yet who to blame but myself? I wrote the part! And it was also the most thrilling roller coaster every night. You know, I got to fall in love, I got to win a war, I got to write words that inspired a nation.
Getting to go through that experience, it's something I'll never get old of, which is why I really tried to downplay my departure as much as possible, because I don't think I'm remotely done with it.
On Donald Trump's tweet calling for the theater to be a safe place after the Hamilton cast read a statement directed to Vice President-elect Mike Pence, who attended a performance soon after the election
Here's where I agree with the president-elect: The theater should always be a safe space. ... I think one of the reasons Hamilton has been embraced by people of every stripe on the political spectrum is that theater is one of the rarest places where we still come together. You may take a totally different conclusion from Hamilton than I do, based on your ideology and your politics and your life experience, but we all sat in a room together and we watched the same thing, and that doesn't happen anymore.
As you can see from this election, we have our own sets of facts based on who we listen to. Which news organization gets our business determines the facts that get in our head. So I think one of the things that makes theater special is, first of all, it's one of the last places you put your phone away, and second of all it's one of the last places where we all have a common experience together.
So to that end, I agree with [Trump's comment]. I don't agree with his characterization of what we did. I think anyone who sees that video sees [actor Brandon Victor Dixon] silencing the boos ... from the audience itself, who ... nine days after the election are still working through that thing. I can't speak to that, but I know that Brandon quieted the boos and made a plea to lead all of us. I don't believe there's anything remotely resembling harassment in what we've done.
On the life he dreamed of as a kid
I have two wonderful, supportive and very practical parents who are like, "You're really talented and really creative. You should be a lawyer," because there's a safe path there. I knew I was never going to be a lawyer. I knew that I wanted to make movies, and I wanted to write shows.
On his love of Disney musicals growing up
I had the great joy of being 9 years old when The Little Mermaid came out, and I went and saw that three times in the theater. Then I dragged my parents back and my family back to see it a couple more times.
I don't know why it changed my life as much as it did. I think Sebastian the crab had a big amount to do with it — the fact that this calypso number happens under the water just knocked my socks off when I was a kid. It had this power over me. I would perform that thing — I would jump up on my desk in fourth grade and sing that song.
Then I had the good fortune of being a kid during that really kind of amazing run of musical animated films. It's Little Mermaid, followed by Beauty and the Beast, followed by Aladdin, followed by The Lion King. That's an incredible run. And what's been exciting is animation has changed so much. There's this incredible Pixar golden age, and really golden age from all these other studios as well, and it feels like we're in another one of those where musicals have a seat at the table. You've got Tangled, you've got Frozen, next to Inside Out, next to Zootopia, and it's exciting to be a part of that tradition again.
On the music that influenced him as a teenager
My sister is as responsible as anyone for giving me good taste in music. I remember stealing her copy of Black Sheep's A Wolf In Sheep's Clothing and learning "Engine, engine number nine, on the New York transit line." I think that's probably the first rap song I really worked hard to memorize in sixth grade, but then also Naughty by Nature and Queen Latifah.
The music you love when you're a teenager is always going to be the most important to you, and I find that it's all over the score of Hamilton. ... These are all New York, East Coast, '90s rappers, and that's when I was a teenager.
On code-switching between the Latin American neighborhood he grew up in and his school with affluent white kids
If you want to make a recipe for making a writer, have them feel a little out of place everywhere, have them be an observer kind of all the time . ...
I won the lotto when I got into Hunter — to get a great, free, public school education sort of saved my family, and I was aware of it. I was aware that I was at a school with kids who were really smart. And I also had friends in the neighborhood who went to the local school, and I remember feeling that drift happen. ...
The corner that I lived on was like this little Latin American country. It's one in which the nanny who lived with us and raised us, who also raised my father in Puerto Rico, never needed to learn English. All of the business owners in and around our block all spoke Spanish, and yet I'd go to school and I'd be at my friends' houses on the Upper East Side and Upper West Side and I'd be the one translating to the nanny who spoke Spanish. So it's interesting to become a Latino cultural ambassador when you're 7.
TERRY GROSS, HOST:
This is FRESH AIR. I'm Terry Gross. My guest Lin-Manuel Miranda has left his title role in "Hamilton," his hip-hop musical about the founding fathers. But this Broadway sensation keeps growing. A production of the show is running in Chicago. Another production will be opening in London. "The Hamilton Mixtape" was recently released, featuring covers of songs from the show by artists like Usher, Alicia Keys and The Roots. The Broadway production won 11 Tonys and "Hamilton" won the Pulitzer Prize for drama.
Miranda's first Broadway show, "In The Heights" was a musical set in a Latino neighborhood in New York similar to the one he grew up in. In 2008, it won the Tony for best musical. Miranda is nominated for a Golden Globe for one of the songs he wrote for the new Disney animated film "Moana."
Let's start with that song. The story is about the daughter of the chief on a Polynesian island. She yearns to leave the island, have an adventure and find her true calling. This is the anthem Moana sings before setting out on her own. It's called "How Far I'll Go." It's sung by Auli'i Cravalho.
(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "HOW FAR I'LL GO")
AULI'I CRAVALHO: (Singing) I wish I could be the perfect daughter. But I come back to the water, no matter how hard I try. Every turn I take, every trail I track, every path I make, every road leads back to the place I know where I cannot go, where I long to be. See the line where the sky meets the sea - it calls me. And no one knows how far it goes. If the wind in my sail on the sea stays behind me, one day I'll go. If I go, there's just no telling how far I'll go. I know...
GROSS: Lin-Manuel Miranda, welcome to FRESH AIR. So what did you do to get into the mindset of an adolescent girl yearning to leave her safe, little island paradise and have an adventure and find her calling?
LIN-MANUEL MIRANDA: I just remembered when I was an adolescent girl wanting to leave my island and find my calling.
GROSS: (Laughter) Yeah. That's the thing.
MIRANDA: I just went right back there. And, you know, that's not a glib answer. I think the the fun of writing that song was finding the specificity in the story you're telling. This is not someone who hates where they live and wants to go somewhere else. This is someone who loves where they live, and yet there's still this voice saying they should go somewhere else.
And so that's messier, you know? That's more complicated. And to that end, I actually went to my parents' house, holed up at my childhood piano and wrote in my old bedroom because I figured let me - let me get to that feeling of sort of there an impossible distance between me and what I want when you're in your childhood bedroom.
GROSS: So what was the thing you wanted that there was an impossible distance from when you were an adolescent?
MIRANDA: A life in this business. You know, a life making stuff. I have two wonderful, supportive and very practical parents who were like, you're really talented and really creative. You should be a lawyer because there's a safe path there. And I knew that I was never going to be a lawyer. And I knew that I wanted to make movies, and I wanted to write shows. And the distance between 200th Street and that just felt very wide. So I kind of got back to that place.
GROSS: Did you go to a lot of Disney animated films when you were growing up? And did the music of those mean anything to you?
MIRANDA: Yeah. I had the great joy of being 9 years old when "The Little Mermaid" came out. And I went and saw it three times in the theater. Then I dragged my parents back and my family back to see it a couple of more times. I don't know why it changed my life as much as it did. I think Sebastian the crab had a big amount to do with it. The fact that this calypso number happens under the water just knocked my socks off when I was a kid.
It had, like, this power over me. I would perform that thing. I would jump up on my desk in fourth grade and sing that song. And then I had the good fortune of being a kid during that really kind of amazing run of musical animated films. It's "Little Mermaid," followed by "Beauty And The Beast," followed by "Aladdin," followed by "The Lion King" - that's an incredible run.
And what's been exciting is there's this incredible Pixar golden age and really golden age from all these other studios as well. And it feels like we're in another one of those, where musicals have a seat at the table. You've got "Tangled," you've got "Frozen," next to "Inside Out," next to "Zootopia." And so it's exciting to be a part of that tradition again.
GROSS: OK, so I want to talk to you about "Hamilton." (Laughter) And so let's start with "My Shot."
GROSS: And so this is...
MIRANDA: Which is the - you know, an adolescent who wants to go out and change the world. I mean, it's - it's a Disney princess song.
GROSS: OK. That's interesting. This is Alexander Hamilton making his big statement about how - you know, he's come to America. He's going to make it, and he's not giving away his shot. You know, and first it's going to be in the Revolutionary War and then in the new American government. So let's hear some of it and then we'll talk. So this is Lin-Manuel Miranda from the cast recording of "Hamilton."
(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "MY SHOT")
MIRANDA: (Rapping) I am not throwing away my shot. I am not throwing away my shot. Hey yo, I'm just like my country, I'm young, scrappy and hungry, and I'm not throwing away my shot. I'm 'a get a scholarship to King's College. I probably shouldn't brag, but dag I amaze and astonish. The problem is I got a lot of brains but no polish. I got to holler just to be heard. With every word, I drop knowledge. I'm a diamond in the rough, a shiny piece of coal trying to reach my goal. My power of speech, unimpeachable. Only 19 but my mind is older. These New York City streets get colder, I shoulder every burden every disadvantage I've learned to manage. I don't have a gun to brandish. I walk these streets famished. The plan is to fan this spark into a flame, but damn, it's getting dark so let me spell out the name. I am the A-L-E-X-A-N-D-E-R. We are meant to be a colony that runs independently...
GROSS: That's Lin Manuel-Miranda from his cast recording of "Hamilton." So, you are so incredible at these, like, intricate rhymes that you do in this show. How do you assemble all these intricately placed rhymes?
MIRANDA: For me, the fun of writing "My Shot" was it's Hamilton's declaration of purpose. And I wanted to demonstrate his intellect and his ambition not just in what he was saying but in the way he was saying it. So prior to his arrival and singing "My Shot" the other guys in that bar - right? - Laurens, Mulligan and Lafayette are rhyming at the end of the line. It's (rapping) I'm John Laurens in the place to be. Two pints of Sam Adams, but I'm working on three.
We rhyme at the end of the line. And then here comes Hamilton. And suddenly you're getting a lot of internal assonance and a lot of internal rhyming and not content to just rhyme at the end of the line, but, you know, have these big pun-esque lyrics, you know. (Rapping) I know the action in the street is exciting, but Jesus between all the bleeding and fighting I've been reading and writing.
So it's - they're intricately tied together. And if you consider that Hamilton is delivering this in real time suddenly you're like, whoa, this is the greatest freestyler who ever lived. And so that was the fun in constructing that. And it was many days and months of work to sort of make his lyrics just that much more intricate than everybody else's.
GROSS: Because he was so smart and so verbal and...
GROSS: ...Yeah. So do you use any tools like a rhyming dictionary? Do you catalog words? Do you have, like, lists of words that you - like when you were doing your research, did you write down key words that you thought would be good to use in lyrics and so that you'd have a kind of storage box of, like, words or phrases that you could work with?
MIRANDA: I would you love to tell you that that's exactly what I did.
MIRANDA: That would seem like it took such care. But honestly, I kind of throw the kitchen sink at whatever situation I'm in at the moment I'm writing. So I remember when I got up to Lafayette's section and being, like, wow, I don't even have conversational French. So going and figuring how do you say [expletive] in French? How do you say - how do you count to 10 in French? I didn't know any of these very elementary things. And doing research just to be able to have it feel tossed off by Lafayette, a mix of French and English while he is learning English in the original colonies. And that was, you know, that amount of time that I spend for those two lines. And also sort of a love letter to Lancelot in Camelot, which is my my mother's favorite score. So have him ending his line with "C'est Moi" which is Lancelot's big tune - that's my little love letter to Lerner and Lowe, just him saying that. So the answer is no, I kind of - I stop and research whatever situation that's in. That being said, I did have Ron Chernow's book as a guidepost.
GROSS: Do you do anything to be able to capture the speed without tripping up your tongue? Does it get harder or easier over time when you're doing the same, you know, raps every night and again it's really fast intricate lyrics and you have to get them on the beat and do it without stumbling?
MIRANDA: The fact that I'm a performer helps me enormously as a lyricist. I wouldn't give a performer something I couldn't deliver myself. With the occasional exception of Daveed Digg's who's just so exceptionally articulate and able to articulate at high speeds that I give him some raps that I probably couldn't deliver the same way at that velocity. But I'm not trying to make something that is difficult to perform every night. It needs to proceed at the speed of that character's thought because that's the only way it's actable. But, you know, it's interesting. I think the - it was an enormous challenge to do that show every night. And yet who to blame but myself?
MIRANDA: I wrote the part. And it was also the most thrilling rollercoaster every night. You know, I got to fall in love. I got to win a war. I got to write words that inspired a nation. It's something I'll never get old of, which is why I really tried to downplay my departure as much as possible because I don't think I'm remotely done with it. I'm too envious when I see Josh Henry as Burr and Karen Olivo as Angelica in Chicago. I want to jump up there with them and go through it again.
GROSS: You should go back and do Aaron Burr the next time.
MIRANDA: You know, I suggested that to Tommy Kail yesterday, and he laughed in my face (laughter).
GROSS: He's the director, right?
MIRANDA: He's the director. You know, it's...
GROSS: Why did he laugh at you?
MIRANDA: He laughed at me because it's just built very differently. You know, it's a - I don't think people are going to ask for a Christmas album of Lin Miranda singing. No one's asking...
MIRANDA: ...For my dulcet tones, like they are for you, Terry.
MIRANDA: You know, no one wants to hear me crooning a ballad. And that's fine, like, I - you know. But it is a different skill set than the one I have.
GROSS: All right. I'll take your word for it (laughter).
MIRANDA: It's so funny. I had this conversation with him last night. I said seriously, if you were to put me in any other role. And Tommy laughed and said you're seriously asking me. I said yeah, seriously. If I were not to play Hamilton, what could I play? He said you'd be an OK...
MIRANDA: You'd be an OK Lafayette Jefferson.
MIRANDA: So if I were to play any other part, you may see me as Lafayette Jefferson one day. I don't think I'll ever play Burr.
GROSS: All right. (Laughter) If you're just joining us my guest is Lin-Manuel Miranda who wrote and starred in "Hamilton." He's out of the cast now working on other things. He wrote several of the songs for the new Disney animated film "Moana." We're going to take a short break. This is FRESH AIR.
(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)
GROSS: This is FRESH AIR. And if you're just joining us my guest is Lin-Manuel Miranda who wrote "In The Heights" and, of course, "Hamilton." and starred in "Hamilton." And now he's written some of the songs for the new Disney animated film "Moana." So "Hamilton" has such an interesting connection to the White House for two reasons. The show basically originates at the White House. You started off thinking of "Hamilton" as a concept album about Alexander Hamilton and the first time you performed one of the songs, the opening song from the show, it was at the White House. What was it like an evening of American music or something that Michelle...
MIRANDA: Yeah. It was evening...
GROSS: ...Obama presented?
MIRANDA: ...Of poetry and spoken word, yeah. And it was in about May of 2009. You know, fresh new administration and thrilled to be asked. And I had written the verses for what became the opening number of "Hamilton." And then sort of adapted it to that room. You know, there was no piano arrangement. I got together with Alex and was, like, all right, this is this is where I think we're headed.
GROSS: This is Alex Lacamoire your pianist?
MIRANDA: Alex Lacamoire my...
GROSS: And music director.
MIRANDA: ...Music director.
MIRANDA: Yeah. And so yeah, so we prepared it for that evening. And the people filming that evening's events - It wasn't the typical C-SPAN footage. HBO shot the night because they were following some of their poets who were performing. There was a series on these poets. So the result is this insane, like, cinematic HD footage of this performance that I think got posted later that fall. I think it was posted in like October or November. You can check the YouTube. And then it really kind of went viral among people for whom history and hip-hop is interesting.
GROSS: OK. Let's hear a little bit of that performance at the White House from 2009. Here's Lin-Manuel Miranda.
(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)
MIRANDA: I'm thrilled the White House called me tonight because I'm actually working on a hip-hop album. It's a concept album about the life of someone I think embodies hip-hop, Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton.
MIRANDA: You laugh. But it's true. He was born a penniless orphan in St. Croix of illegitimate birth, became George Washington's right-hand man, became treasury secretary, caught beef with every other Founding Father. And all in the strength of his writing I think he embodies the words' ability to make a difference. So I'm going to be doing the first song from that tonight. I'm accompanied by Tony and Grammy-winning music director Alex Lacamoire.
MIRANDA: Anything you need to know, I'll be playing Vice President Aaron Burr. And snap along if you like.
MIRANDA: (Rapping) How does a bastard, orphan, son of a whore and a Scotsman dropped in the middle of a forgotten spot in the Caribbean by providence, impoverished, in squalor grow up to be a hero and a scholar? The $10 Founding Father without a father got a lot farther by working a lot harder, by being a lot smarter, by being a self-starter. By 14, they had placed him in charge of a trading charter. And every day while slaves were being slaughtered and carted away across the waves, our Hamilton kept his guard up. Inside, he was longing for something to be a part of. The brother...
GROSS: That's Lin-Manuel Miranda performing the opening number from "Hamilton" at the White House with Michelle and Barack Obama in the audience. So let's skip ahead to just a few weeks ago, when Vice President-elect Mike Pence attended "Hamilton," and he was cheered - he was booed when he was there. And then when the show was over, Brandon Victor Dixon, who now plays Aaron Burr, came out and read, like, a little speech directed to Mike Pence. And I'll read some of it for our listeners who might not have heard this yet. This is what he said (reading) Vice President-elect Pence, we welcome you, and we truly thank you for joining us here at "Hamilton: An American Musical." We really do. We, sir, are the diverse America who are alarmed and anxious that your new administration will not protect us, our planet, our children, our parents or defend us and uphold our inalienable rights, sir. But we truly hope this show has inspired you to uphold our American values and to work on behalf of all of us - all of us. Thank you truly for seeing this show. This wonderful American story told by a diverse group of men, women of different colors creeds and orientations.
So you co-wrote this. That's my understanding. You co-wrote it with the director and the producer. Do I have that right?
MIRANDA: Yes, with Tommy and Jeffrey. We got the heads up that he was coming that afternoon and sort of put that together before his arrival.
GROSS: OK. So what was the conversation like between you and whoever else was involved about whether you should say something or not?
MIRANDA: Well, the conversation was this has been an incredibly divisive election with a lot of hurt feelings and disappointment and anger on both sides. And the overwhelming sort of statement within that statement is we truly hope you lead all of us. We're a play that tells the story of our founders with a very diverse company that we feel, you know, reflects what our country looks like now.
And so it was really intended as an olive branch. You know, please lead all of us. And I was - what I was really grateful for was that Sunday, Mike Pence really was grateful for that. And I think got it in the sentiment in which it was intended. He said I wasn't offended. I assure you that we are trying to lead all of you. And so I was grateful for his statements and for him stopping to listen. You know, he didn't have to do that. But he did. And I thought it felt like a civil dialogue between us.
GROSS: So you said Vice President-elect Mike Pence took this speech very well. President-elect Trump did not. He tweeted (reading) the theater must always be a safe and special place. The cast of "Hamilton" was very rude last night to a very good man, Mike Pence. Apologize - exclamation point.
And he tweeted (reading) our wonderful, future Vice President Mike Pence was harassed last night at the theater by the cast of "Hamilton." Cameras blazing. This should not happen - exclamation point.
What was your reaction to the tweets?
MIRANDA: Well, here's where I agree with the president-elect. The theater should always be a safe space. It's, in fact, I think, one of the reasons "Hamilton's" been embraced by people of every stripe on the political spectrum is that theater is one of the rarest places where we still come together. You know, you may take a totally different conclusion from "Hamilton" than I do based on your ideology and your politics and your life experience, but we all sat in a room together and we watched the same thing. And that doesn't happen anymore.
As you can see from this election, we have our own sets of facts based on who we listen to. Which a news organization gets our business determines the facts that get in our head. So, you know, I think one of the things that makes theater special is first of all, it's one of the last places you put your phone away. And second of all, it's one of the last places where we all have a common experience together. So, you know, to that end, I agree with him. I don't agree with his characterization of what we did. I think anyone who sees that video sees Brandon silencing the boos that were not coming from anyone involved in our company, but from the audience itself who are nine days after the election are still working through that thing. I - you know, I can't speak to that. But I know that Brandon quited the boos and made a plea to lead all of us. And I don't believe there's anything remotely resembling harassment in what we've done.
GROSS: My guest is Lin-Manuel Miranda, the creator and original star of the musical "Hamilton." He's nominated for a Golden Globe for the song "How Far I'll Go" which he wrote for the new Disney animated musical "Moana." After a break, he'll tell us about his first rhymes, the music he first loved and why mix tapes were really important when he was growing up. I'm Terry Gross. And this is FRESH AIR.
(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "YORKTOWN")
UNIDENTIFIED ARTISTS: The battle of Yorktown 1781.
DAVEED DIGGS: (Singing) Monsieur Hamilton.
MIRANDA: (Singing) Monsieur Lafayette.
DIGGS: (Singing) In command where you belong.
MIRANDA: (Singing) Are you saying no sweat? We're finally on the field. We’ve had quite a run.
DIGGS: (Singing) Immigrants.
MIRANDA: (Singing) We get the job done. So what happens if we win?
DIGGS: (Singing) I go back to France. I bring freedom to my people if I’m given the chance
MIRANDA: (Singing) We’ll be with you when you do.
DIGGS: (Singing) Go lead your men.
MIRANDA: (Singing) See you on the other side.
DIGGS: (Singing) 'Til we meet again, let’s go!
MIRANDA: (Singing) I am not throwing away my shot. I am not throwing away my shot...
GROSS: This is FRESH AIR. I'm Terry Gross back with Lin-Manuel Miranda, the creator of "Hamilton," the Broadway hip-hop phenomenon about the Founding Fathers which won 11 Tonys and the Pulitzer Prize for drama. "The Hamilton Mixtape" an album of covers of songs from the show was recently released. And now Miranda is nominated for a Golden Globe for the song "How Far I'll Go," one of the songs he wrote for the new Disney made - Disney animated film "Moana." Miranda played the title role in the original production of "Hamilton" but he left the role over the summer and is currently working on his role in the new "Mary Poppins" movie sequel. So "Hamilton" is in part a story about an immigrant and - about immigrants and - which, of course, relates to your family background. Your father came to New York from Puerto Rico for college. And your mother...
MIRANDA: Technically making him not an immigrant because Puerto Rico is a commonwealth, but the experience of Spanish to English and displacement are very similar.
GROSS: Right. Exactly. And your mother I think moved as an infant to the U.S. from Puerto Rico.
GROSS: And you grew up in a predominantly Latino neighborhood. You went to like the Hunter College elementary and high school. Do I have that right?
MIRANDA: That's right.
GROSS: Yeah. So you've spoken in the past about this divide between who you were at home and in your Latino neighborhood and who you were at school with friends. What was the difference between those two yous?
MIRANDA: Oh, man. I feel like we've just stepped into Code Switch because that's what I was doing. I think that's sort of the interesting thing. I mean, I think if you want to make a recipe for making a writer, have them feel a little out of place everywhere, have them be an observer kind of all the time. And that's a great way to make a writer. I won the lotto when I got into Hunter to get a great free public school education - sort of saved my family, and I was aware of it. I was aware of - that I was at a school with kids who were really smart. And I also had friends in the neighborhood who went to the local school.
And I remember feeling that drift happen, you know, when you spend your entire day with someone, your closer friends become the ones you go to school with. And yet, I'd still have sleepovers with the friends from the neighborhood, make movies with my friends from the neighborhood and, you know, the corner of - that I lived in was like this little Latin American country. It's one in which the nanny who lived with us and raised us who also raised my father in Puerto Rico never needed to learn English. All of the business owners in and around our block all spoke Spanish.
And yet, I'd go to school, and I'd be at my friends' houses on the Upper East Side and Upper West Side. And I'd be the one translating to the nanny who spoke Spanish. So it's interesting to become a Latino cultural ambassador when you're 7, you know what I mean? (Laughter) So I had that experience as well. So, you know, we changed depending on the room we're in. I'm talking quieter because I'm talking to Terry Gross.
GROSS: (Laughter) So you obviously, you know, love rap and hip-hop. What were the first recordings that made a big impression - the first rap recordings that made a big impression on you?
MIRANDA: I have several. I remember my sister bringing home the Fat Boys when I was really little and also taking me to the first hip-hop movies. I remember going to see "Beat Street" and going to see "Breakin'" as a really little kid being sort of dragged along by my older sister. My sister is as responsible for anyone for giving me good taste in music. I remember stealing her copy of Black Sheep's "A Wolf In Sheep's Clothing" and learning (rapping) engine, engine number nine on the New York transit line.
I think that's probably the first rap song I really worked hard to memorize in sixth grade. But then also, you know, Naughty By Nature and Queen Latifa - the music you love when you're a teenager is always going to be the most important to you. And I find that it's all over the score of "Hamilton." The quotes are Biggie quotes. They're a big pun, and these are all New York East Coast '90s rappers. And that's when I was a teenager.
GROSS: So I'm going to put you on the spot and ask you to do one of the first rhymes that you remember writing that you still remember today.
MIRANDA: (Rapping) Well, hello. My name is Lin. But if you're dyslexic, call me Nil. My rhymes are gonna kill, so I suggest you write your will and leave your [expletive] to me. I am the epitome of coolness, can't be rid of me because I will be hitting the mic tonight.
Notice my voice went up above two octaves. It's because at that time I was listening to nothing but the Far Side. And my favorite rapper in the Far Side had that (rapping in high-pitched voice) well, there she goes again. The dopest Ethiopian and now the world around me.
It was that cadence, and I think my rapper voice is still influenced by Far Side. But that is - those lines were a rhyme I wrote in ninth grade that I showed to friends. And they were like, all right, stick to your day job (laughter).
GROSS: No, come on. That was pretty good. That was funny (laughter).
GROSS: So OK. And I'm going to put you on the spot one more time. Your father has or had a political consulting company. He worked with New York City Mayor Ed Koch...
MIRANDA: He has.
GROSS: ...He still has it - and advising him on Latino Affairs. And you apparently wrote jingles when you were younger for this political consulting company that your father owns. So how old were you when you started writing them? And please sing one for us.
MIRANDA: Well, jingles is misleading because it sounds like a, oh, how a way to wake up in the morning. It's not - they're not like "I Like Ike." It's background music for commercials. So there's nothing catchy I can sing you. But, yeah, I started writing those really out of college. I was paying the rent like every other struggling writer, and I was teaching part time seventh-grade English at my old school at Hunter. And then after a year of teaching regularly, I went into just subbing - being a professional sub to have more time to write. And then my dad would - I was basically cheap labor for my dad.
He would say I need 30 seconds of some jazz for a Sharpton spot that's going to be on WBLS or I need some bright salsa for a Fernando Ferrer campaign commercial. You know, I wrote music for Eliot Spitzer before we knew what we knew when he was running for governor. I wrote for Caul McCaul (ph) and whatever Democrat was running or my dad was working with - I was writing the campaign music. I liked writing the negative ads more than - because it's more minor chords. You just kind of hit the synthesizer (imitating synthesizer). Politician X voted against da da da, and then it ends with bright salsa - (imitating salsa music) vote politician Y.
GROSS: Oh, that's great. So you know how you were talking about the compartmentalized you, the you you were when you were at home and in your Latino neighborhood and the you you were at school when your friends were white and not Latino and that you learn finally to bring all those parts together with the same kind of compartmentalization happening for you musically? You loved Broadway shows, and you loved hip-hop. And it's maybe hard to find people who - when they're teens love both?
MIRANDA: Yeah. I mean, absolutely. And, honestly, what a fantastic question because theater is really the thing that began to break that divide for me. My senior year in high school, I was the director of the school musical, and I picked the "West Side Story" painfully aware that there were not enough Latino kids to play all the sharks in "West Side Story" at Hunter - or at least audition. And so what that became for me was actually this kind of weird way of bringing my culture to school. I remember being knocked out when I first saw the movie in sixth grade that there's actually a musical number in the canon about whether you should stay in Puerto Rico and live in the United States.
GROSS: Oh, yeah.
MIRANDA: You know, that's amazing when you're 12, and you grow up in New York and your family's all from this other island to have that conversation happening in front of you in an iconic musical. And so I had my white and Asian sharks. And I brought my dad in, and he did dialect coaching. You know, while they're singing "America," I want the things they're yelling while they're cheering each other on to be accurate. I want the accents to be accurate, so it actually - it became a way to bring home to school directing that production.
Also, you know, I think I started writing musicals because I saw "Rent" on my 17th birthday, and I can't overstate how much that gave me permission to write musicals. You know, I loved musicals. I loved being in the school play and being lucky enough to get parts in the school play. But they always took place in some other time and place. You know, it's - "Phantom" is in Paris and "Les Mis" is in - you know, well, they're all - a lot of them are in France, a lot of the ones I grew up with in the '80s. But they always took place in some mythical time, some mythical place. And here's this musical, again, by a talented young man who didn't live to see it open on Broadway, and it's about artists living in the village right now. And I think I started writing because no one had ever told me you can write about the things you know in a musical. They don't have to come from some far off place.
GROSS: I think we have to take another short break here. My guest is Lin-Manuel Miranda who wrote and starred in in "The Heights" and, of course, more recently wrote and starred in "Hamilton." He's out of the cast now, but the show is still, needless to say, going real strong. And he also wrote several songs for the new Disney animated film "Moana." We'll be right back. This is FRESH AIR.
GROSS: This is FRESH AIR, and if you're just joining us, my guest is Lin-Manuel Miranda who created, wrote and starred in "Hamilton." And he also wrote several of the songs for the new Disney animated film "Moana." Did you ever have friends who loved hip-hop who thought that there was something wrong with you because you also like Broadway?
MIRANDA: No. And then here's the - well, here's the other thing that I feel really lucky about. I grew up in the time just when cassettes were waning and CDs were growing. And so mix tapes - and not mix CDs - mix tapes were an important part of the friendship and mating rituals of New York adolescents (laughter). If you were a girl and I wanted you - to show you I like you, I would make you a 90-minute cassette wherein I would show off my tastes. I would play you a musical theater song next to a hip-hop song next to an oldie next to some pop song you maybe never heard, also subliminally telling you how much I like you with all these songs. I think I learned more about writing scores for Broadway by making mix tapes in the '90s than I did in college. You're learning about rise and fall and energy and tempo shifts. You're showing off your taste and your references. You're trying to be witty by - through placement of music you didn't write. And so it's no accident that the initial name for my show was "The Hamilton Mixtape." That's how I approached writing the score.
GROSS: Oh, that's why you called it that. Oh, OK. I get it.
MIRANDA: Yeah. Here's everything I know about this guy, and it's a ride. And you're along for the ride, and, again, the reason I make that distinction cassette before CD is you have to listen to it in the order in which I've curated it for you. You know, side A to side B is our act break. And I say all that to answer your question because I had friends who only listened to hip-hop. I had friends who only listened to musicals, and I stood proudly in the middle, and I'd say I'm going to change your life with this song.
GROSS: So I have to ask you about Stephen Sondheim because you have a very interesting history with him. First of all, when you were directing "West Side Story" in high school, he came to your class because he was the friend of the father of one of the students in the cast and spoke to you.
MIRANDA: Yes. John Weidman's daughter.
GROSS: Oh, oh.
MIRANDA: He was very good friends with a - who's still like one of my wife's best friends. They were in the same grade, went to our school and John Weidman...
GROSS: Oh. He wrote the book for "Assassins" and "Pacific Overtures."
MIRANDA: "Pacific Overtures," yes.
GROSS: Yeah. OK. So there's that. So you get to meet him in high school and then you get to write the Spanish lyrics for the Spanish production of "West Side Story..."
GROSS: ...And then you got to be in a production of "Merrily We Roll Along" which is a great Sondheim musical that always needs to be revived because the original Broadway run was so very short. And so this was a city center - a New York City Center Encores production...
GROSS: And, in fact, I want to play just a little bit of you in that which...
MIRANDA: Oh, great.
GROSS: ...Encores was gracious enough to - I saw you in this production.
MIRANDA: Oh, wonderful.
GROSS: Yeah. It was great. So you're playing a lyricist who works with a composer, but the composer has kind of like sold out, and, you know, he's just doing like commercial work. And the lyricist now has come to think of the composer instead of just being his friend and collaborator Franklin Shepard, he thinks of him now as like Franklin Shepard Inc. because he's so much about, like, deals and making money. So in this scene, like, you're getting interviewed on TV, and you're just kind of pretty bitter about the whole collaboration with this composer. So here's my guest Lin...
MIRANDA: Buzz, buzz, buzz.
GROSS: (Laughter) Yeah. Here's my guest Lin-Manuel Miranda.
(SOUNDBITE OF MUSICAL, "MERRILY WE ROLL ALONG")
UNIDENTIFIED ACTRESS: (As character) Now, how do you two work together?
COLIN DONNELL: (As Franklin Shepard) Oh, we work...
MIRANDA: (As Charley Kringas) Oh, may I answer that?
UNIDENTIFIED ACTRESS: (As character) Please.
MIRANDA: (As Charley Kringas) How do we work together? Sure. He goes (playing piano). And I go (playing instrument). (Singing) And soon we're humming along (humming). And that's called writing a song (humming). Then he goes (playing piano). And I go (playing instrument). And the phone goes (imitating phone ringing). And he goes mutter, mutter, mutter, mutter. Yes, Jerome, mutter, no, Jerome. Mutter, mutter, mutter, mutter. That's his lawyer, Jerome. Mutter, mutter, mutter, mutter, mutter, do it, Jerome. Click. Sorry, Charley. (Playing piano). So I go (playing instrument), and he goes (playing piano). And I go (playing instrument). And soon we're tapping away (humming). (Buzzing) Sorry, Charley. (Buzzing). It's the secretary - (buzzing) - on the intercom. Yes, Ms. Bzzz, it's a messenger. Thanks, Ms. Bzzz. Will you tell him to wait? Will you order the car? Will you call up the bank? Will you wire the coast? Will you - (imitating phone ringing). Sorry, Charley. Mutter, mutter, mutter, mutter sell the stock, mutter, buy the rights. Mutter, mutter, mutter, mutter, mutter (buzzing). Let me put you on hold (buzzing). Yes, Ms. Bzzz. It's the interview. Thanks, Ms. Bzzz, will you tell him to wait? Will you wire the car? Will you order the coast? Will you send up the bank? And the telephones blink and the stocks get sold and the rest of us he keeps on hold. And he's into making movies. And he's now a corporation. Right? So I play at home with my wife and kids. And I wait to hear the movie bids. And I've got a little sailboat. And I'm into meditation. Right. He flies off to California. I discuss him with my shrink. That's the story of the way we work. Me and Franklin Shepard Inc.
(Laughter). I'm surprised at how much I like this.
MIRANDA: OK. That's my guest Lin-Manuel Miranda, a production of The New York City Center Encores Great American Musical series and a production of Stephen Sondheim's "Merrily We Roll Along."
GROSS: You're so much fun in that. And I really think doing hip-hop rhymes is great preparation for that lyric...
MIRANDA: Absolutely is.
GROSS: ...For singing that. Yeah. And Sondheim has written so many - he's just like the most brilliant lyricist. But what are some of the things you feel you learned either from talking with Sondheim? Because I know he also gave you feedback on "Hamilton" before you actually put it onstage. So what are the things you've learned from actually talking to him or just from, like, getting intimately acquainted with his work?
MIRANDA: A couple of things. First of all, I am one of so many composers he's taken the time to encourage, and I feel very grateful to be one of many. I'm by no means unique in that I've gotten words of encouragement from Steve Sondheim. And many in my generation have, and that's been incredible. The way in which he specifically helped me with "Hamilton" - and, first of all by saying that's a great idea when I first told it to him.
The first time I met him to work on those translations, he said what else are you working on? What comes after in "The Heights?" And I said I think a musical about Alexander Hamilton, and he threw up his head and said that is a fantastic idea. And that moment kept me nourished for months. You know, when the writing was tough, when I couldn't figure out how to end those first four lines of "My Shot." The notion that Sondheim threw up his head and said that's a fantastic idea, you know, kept me sane. But the thing he always sort of stressed was variety, variety, variety, variety, variety.
When you're dealing with a constant rhythm, no matter how great your lyrics are, if you don't switch it up, people's heads are going to start bobbing. And they're going to stop listening to what you're saying, so consistently keep the ear fresh and keep the audience surprised. And, you know, that was his sort of watchword throughout the writing of "Hamilton." I'd send him a batch of songs, and he'd say I'm going to say it again - variety, variety, variety. And so I - you know, that was my mantra during the writing of that show.
GROSS: The Sondheim song that's closest to comic rap is, in my opinion, "Not Getting Married" which is done...
MIRANDA: (Rapping) Is everybody here? Because if everybody's here, I'd like to thank you all for coming to the wedding.
GROSS: Do more, do more.
MIRANDA: (Rapping) I'd appreciate your going even more. I mean, you must have lots of better things to do, and not a word of it to Paul. Remember Paul, you know, the man I'm going to marry? But I'm not because I'd never ruin anyone as wonderful as he is. Thank you all for the gifts and the flowers. Thanks to you all for the cards and the showers. Don't tell Paul, but I'm not getting married today.
GROSS: Anyone who could do that song has an incredible tongue.
GROSS: It's so tricky. It's so fast and the words are so just kind of like dense and funny and rhymy (ph). And so, obviously, you know that song by heart more or less, and have you thought about that song a lot in terms of intricate rhyme schemes and what the human is capable of without totally tripping up?
MIRANDA: Honestly, I think about that song more when people ask me how did you think rap was going to work on Broadway? And I'm like, oh, nothing in my show is faster than "Getting Married Today" in "Company."
MIRANDA: So I don't know what you're talking about. There's so much precedent for the work in both, quote, unquote, "hip-hop" and not in terms of patter for the stage. But, you know, what's amazing about "Getting Married Today" is it's also in a masterclass in making a lyric easy. There are consonants on which you waste air. H - there's no H's in that because if you say (imitating H sound), you've lost half the air in your lungs. So it's very T's and P's. (Rapping) Thank you all. Is everybody here? Because if everybody's here, I'd like to thank you all for coming to the wedding.
It's more about breath control than being - it's not a tongue twister. It's very consciously not a tongue twister. It's about being able to say it in one continuous breath and getting out of the way and choosing words that do not require any extra air or any extra tongue or jaw work. So it's actually not about trying to making it hard. It's about making it easy.
GROSS: So did you learn that intuitively or did Sondheim tell you that that was his intention to stay away from as many H's as possible and to keep it to things that could easily be said?
MIRANDA: I think I read about that in a conversation he had at some point, but I also knew that intuitively because of the hip-hop artists I liked who rapped fast, you know - they're not trying to make something that's hard for them to perform every night. They're trying to make something that sounds impressive and is a joy to deliver every night. I'm trying to think of, like, a really specific early '90s example. Queen Latifah - (rapping) Snatch ya stature. Your broken looks more like a fracture. Catch that rapper. Latifah will be back to crush ya.
That's Queen Latifa in 1992, and it's fast. There's Queen Latifah's "U.N.I.T.Y." She goes (rapping) there's plenty of people out there with triggers ready to pull it. Why you trying to jump in front of the bullet, young lady?
No H's. So you learn intuitively that, like, the writer is trying to make something that flows easily off the tongue.
GROSS: So did the writer of Alexander Hamilton try to avoid H's in writing the lyrics?
MIRANDA: Well, you will observe that Hamilton is not in any of the fast rapping that happens onstage, right? George Washington goes Hamilton and then Jefferson is the one who goes (rapping) sir, he knows what to do in a trench, ingenuitive and fluent in French, I mean.
So we're not hampering anyone with Hamilton.
GROSS: (Laughter) My guest is Lin-Manuel Miranda, the creator and original star of the Broadway hip-hop musical "Hamilton." We'll talk more after a break. This is FRESH AIR.
(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)
GROSS: This is FRESH AIR. Let's get back to my interview with Lin-Manuel Miranda, the creator of the Broadway hip-hop musical "Hamilton." He played Hamilton in the original production, but left the show over the summer. So you've been working on a sequel to "Mary Poppins," not writing the music but performing in it. And I'm actually not sure if this is a movie or a show.
MIRANDA: It's a movie.
GROSS: Oh, OK.
MIRANDA: It's a film. Rob Marshall is directing it...
GROSS: And he did "Chicago." He did the film "Chicago" which is great.
MIRANDA: "Chicago" and "Into The Woods." Yeah. He's really a...
GROSS: Oh, right. Also great. Yeah.
MIRANDA: Yeah, yeah. He's pretty incredible.
GROSS: So are you still working on that right now?
MIRANDA: Yeah. We've just finished up six weeks of rehearsal, and we'll begin shooting next year.
GROSS: Is it a relief for you to not have to leave "Hamilton" and immediately start writing another musical because, like, topping "Hamilton" is going to be so hard. I feel like you just, like, probably need a break from that. And, I don't know...
MIRANDA: Yeah. You can't - if you think in terms of topping, you're in the wrong business. You can't think that way. You know, I remember getting that question after "In The Heights." It's your first musical, and you won the Tony. Like, how are you going to top it? And I'm like I went from broke substitute teacher to Broadway composer. I will never make a leap that big in my life again. That's a huge leap, and I'm very lucky to have made that leap.
In terms of performing, it's an enormous relief. It's an enormous relief to go to work and be an actor and not be worried about writing. I'm just learning. I'm learning choreography, and I'm, you know, learning my lines. And that's enormous fun. And I'm also learning from one of the best, you know, acting on screen in a very real way. I've done it a little bit, but I'm in pretty rarefied air in terms of the people around me. So I guess getting back to legacy, you can't control the success or failure of a thing you work on. You can only control the thing you work on.
And so I try to let my decisions be guided not by what I think will succeed or fail, but what I'm going to learn from that process. You know, I co-wrote a musical we didn't discuss called "Bring It On The Musical," not because ever since I was a little boy I wanted to write about cheerleaders, but because I knew I'd be working with Andy Blankenbuehler and Tom Kitt and Jeff Whitty and Amanda Green. And I knew I'd have three different - three new tools for my songwriting tool kit from working with that caliber of artists. And I was. I could not have written "Hamilton" without having worked on "Bring It On" first. So the joy is in finishing my run and then going and being a song and dance man for six months.
GROSS: Right. Well, Lin-Manuel Miranda, it's just been wonderful to talk with you. I thoroughly enjoyed it. Thank you so very much.
MIRANDA: Likewise. The joy is mine.
GROSS: Lin-Manuel Miranda created the musical "Hamilton" and originated the title role. He wrote several songs for the new Disney animated film "Moana."
Tomorrow on FRESH AIR, my guest will be Omar Saif Ghobash. His new book collects his thoughts on moderate Islam and has written in the form of letters to his two sons urging them to find knowledge and understanding in all cultures and philosophies. Ghobash is now the United Arab Emirates ambassador to Russia. His father was a UAE diplomat who was the unintended target of an assassin's bullet. I hope you'll join us.
(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "NON-STOP")
LESLIE ODOM JR.: (Rapping) After the war, I went back to New York.
GROSS: FRESH AIR'S executive producer is Danny Miller. Our interviews and reviews are produced and edited by Amy Salit, Phyllis Myers, Roberta Shorrock, Ann Marie Baldonado, Sam Briger, Lauren Krenzel, John Sheehan, Heidi Saman and Mooj Zadie. Therese Madden directed today's show. I'm Terry Gross.
(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "NON-STOP")
ODOM: (Rapping) Man, the man is non-stop.
MIRANDA: (Rapping) Gentlemen of the jury, I'm curious, bear with me. Are you aware that we're making history? This is the first murder trial of our brand new nation. The liberty behind deliberation. I intend to prove Beyond a shadow of a doubt with my assistant counsel...
ODOM: (Rapping) Co-counsel, Hamilton, sit down. Our client Levi Weeks is innocent. Call your first witness. That's all you had to say. -
MIRANDA: (Rapping) OK. One more thing...
ODOM: (Rapping) Why do you assume... Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.